Challenges and Change in the E&P Business
Challenges in the appraisal and modeling of unconventional resources have changed a great deal in the business of hydrocarbon exploration and development. These challenges are met and converted into powerful new capabilities in PetroVR 11.1.
With the release of PetroVR 11.1, we have completed a three-year software development plan begun in 2010 to build on our already mature offshore modeling capabilities and workflows. This release delivers major enhancements in how unconventional appraisal workflows can be handled quickly to evaluate scheduling and financial risk vulnerabilities. It utilizes Bayesian methods to allow for revision of prior estimates based on new field data that is acquired.
A new module, PetroVR Thermal, integrates capabilities developed over the last three years to address the unique functionality required to develop thermal recovery systems, including SAGD, shale oil projects that use heating wells, and heavy oil projects based on the injection of steam.
Example of Surface Layout for Thermal Recovery
PetroVR Thermal is enabled with a separate PetroVR license. Request a Demo/Trial or Contact a Client Coach to learn how to access these capabilities.
With PetroVR Thermal enabled, these objects will now be available to enter the modeling environment with specific interfaces, settings and runtime variables:
|Steam Injection Well||Heating Well||Learning on Power Consumption|
|Steam Injection Facility||Power Plant||Well Scheduler for Unconventional Declines|
|Steam Plant||Refinery||Well Patterns|
Once these options are enabled, production patterns, consisting of one or more producers and injectors can be modeled. Two new kinds of injectors are available: Steam Injection Wells, and Heating Wells. Steam Injection Wells are fed by Steam Injection Facilities, which are in turn served by Steam Injection Plants. These plants turn water into steam, consuming gas as fuel in the process. Steam Injection Plants can be optionally turned into Co-Generation Plants, to produce electricity together with steam.
Power Plants are facilities that provide electricity to all the field equipment, reporting surpluses as sales and acquiring power from the grid if necessary. Many other objects are available, such as: Refineries, Containment Walls, Freeze Wells, and more.
Learning Curves in PetroVR Thermal can be tailored to each type of power consumer: heaters, rigs, refineries, and containment systems.
Charting Injection-Production Dependencies
Tie injection to production. Gain complete control over the mutual dependencies of production and injection at the reservoir level by setting a Voidage Replacement Ratio, an Oil-Gas Ratio, a Steam-Oil Ratio, or Energy Balance in the case of heating wells.
Oil-to-SIPR Reveals Steam Oil Ratio
Model the impact of injection shortage on production. In case of a shortage, injection can be allocated to wells proportionally or sequentially. Model the impact of injection fluid shortage on reservoir production. A new switch enabled separately for each injection fluid is available at reservoir level to specify the desired ratio between production and injection, and the penalization on production caused by injection shortage. In case of shortage, injection can be allocated to wells proportionally or sequentially.
Accelerate modeling a large number of wells in “Batches” (called Multi-Wells)
A new switch in the process of cloning jobs enables the simulation engine to treat batches of similar wells as single units (called Multi-Wells), which accelerates modeling by simplifying the necessary calculations and thus reducing memory requirements and simulation times for projects with a large number of wells.
Results In Last Simulation Shows Large Number of Wells Modeled
Minimum loss of granularity in the results is ensured by keeping track of drilling and completion dates, rig usage and production curves of individual wells.
Boolean variables have been added to the list of available runtime variables — variables whose value changes during a simulation — including variables related to wells (Has Been Drilled, Has Been Completed), wells & facilities (Is Online, Has Been Abandoned), facilities only (Has Been Built), reservoirs & well groups (Is Producing, Has No Pending Completions) and jobs (Has Started, Has Finished, Has Completed Its Task). Other new runtime variables are those related to rigs (Units, Idle Units), resources (Total Acquired) and gas producers (Initial Pressure). The use of specific runtime variables helps simplify Functional Modeling Language (FML) expressions.
A new probability distribution is available, the PERT variation of the Beta distribution, which is used in a variety of fields such as time allocation in project management, geological soil properties, and Bayesian inference. For a Beta PERT distribution, enter the minimum value, the most likely one, and the maximum value, and a more robust estimation of probability.
Example Beta PERT Distribution Honors Data While Simplifying
New Functions in the Functional Modeling Language (FML)
In probability distributions, a new set of functions opens the door to robust handling of uncertainties, including the ability to define conditional and composed probabilities. These new functions include mathematical functions (average, geometricMean) and probability functions (averageDistribution, distribution, geometricMeanDistribution, inverseDistribution, inverseNormal, inverseLognormal).
More Powerful Well Groups
Several features increase the utility of user-defined Well Groups for partial studies of a given prospect, identifying sets of wells or reservoirs, and also allowing the grouping and nesting of those reservoirs.
Specific new capabilities include:
- Using well group parameters in job start conditions
- Obtaining results of wells drilled per group
- Referencing well group-specific runtime variables
- Generating user group simulation graph options
Dynamic Well Clone Variables (Auto Reference)
A new level of configuration for well clones has been introduced, generating well clones by means of Automatic Development or Cloning Jobs. Now when cloned, all FML functions that make reference to the prototype well are turned into auto-references, meaning that each well clone’s parameters can dynamically change.
Enhanced Statistical Graphs
The graph for array results now shows the Mean value as a solid line, alongside the dashed line representing the percentile 50, and the dotted lines representing percentiles 25 and 75.
Example of Enhanced Statistical Graph
Bubble Charts in Cross Plots
PetroVR Cross Plots, which plot the point where the values of two variables coincide in a probabilistic run, have been enriched with a new dimension, thanks to the addition of bubbles whose size and color represents the value assumed by a third variable.
Example Bubble Chart
Automatic Hyperlinks in Descriptions
The documenting possibilities of PetroVR have been enhanced with the addition of hyperlinks in all description fields. Write all kinds of references for your projects, either to local files or internet URLs.
Portable Portfolio Models
Pack a whole portfolio with all its associated project files and save them in a single, independent folder with a click, thanks to the “Copy Portfolio Files to” option.
Save Monte Carlo Iterations as Projects
Turn any Monte Carlo iteration identified in the Cross Plot or the Probabilistic Data node into a PetroVR project, saving it as a .pvr or a .ch file.
Array References in Contract Interests
The ability to deal with changes over time in Partner’s equity has been enhanced in PetroVR Contract with the possibility to turn the Partner interest into an array, showing different values for each reporting period. This enables carrys, reversions and other deal terms to be modeled that impact Partner interest.
Statistics on Ver 11.1
New major capabilities: 29
Discrete new unit tests: 813
New functional test cases: 2,500
Total unit tests: 10,336
Total functional test cases: 31,314
Client user requests
44 separate Help Desk requests contributed to 25 of 29 new major capabilities released in Version 11.